FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Introduction: Population increasing day by day in our country. Pond, Forrest, Farming land reduces proportionately. Fish Farming on roof , in Kitchen garden to supply Food in our country. Our technology try to produce food in alternative ways. Unemployment is on rise as the population grows. As my opinion, Fish farming on roof help the livelihood of many people and provide food support in our country.

These types of aquaculture systems represent a new and unique way to farm fish. The system follows at high density fish in indoor tanks with a controlled environment

Fish grown in tank firming all type of weather conditions. There need a continuous supply of clean water and dissolved oxygen content that is optimum for growth. A filtering (bio-filter) system is necessary to purify the water and remove or detoxify harmful waste products and uneaten feed. The fish must be feed a nutritionally-complete feed on a daily basis to encourage fast growth and high survival.

What is Fish Firming?

Fish farming or fishery involves commercially raising fish in fish ponds such as tanks or big pond or river. It is the major form of aquaculture. Worldwide, the most important fish species produced in fisheries are carp, tilapia, salmon and catfish.

 Demand of fish and fish proteins are increasing, resulting in widespread increases in wild fisheries. But here I describe new technology for fish farming in a very small area.

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offer fish producers a variety of important advantages over open pond culture. These include a method to maximize production on a limited supply of water and land. Complete environmental control to maximize fish growth year-round. The flexibility to locate production facilities near large markets, complete and convenient harvesting, and quick and effective disease control.

These can be of various sizes ranging from large-scale production systems to intermediate-sized systems to small systems. Yearly near about 25000 kg. They can use as grow-out systems to produce food fish or as hatcheries. Eggs producing and fingerling sport fish for stocking and ornamental fish for home aquariums.

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Indoor tank applies to the broiler house or swine farm concept, so prevalent and effectively used in modern poultry and pork production systems, to rear large numbers of fish in a relatively small space. Indoor fish farming in tanks may revolutionize fish production in the same way that confinement systems altered the pork and poultry farming industries.

This is an excellent alternative to open pond culture where low densities (extensive culture) of fish rear free in large ponds and are subject to losses from diseases, parasites, prediction, pollutants, stress, and seasonally sub optimal growing conditions

How much area require for a firm?

The fish tank conserve both water and land. They maximize production in a relatively small area of land and use a relatively small volume of water. For example, using a RAS it is possible to product over 25000 Kg. of fish in a 1250 square-foot tank, whereas 15 bigha/ 5 acres of outdoor ponds would be necessary to produce an equal amount of fish with traditional open pond culture. Similarly, since water reuse, the water volume requirements only about 20% of what conventional open pond culture demands. They offer a promising solution to water use conflicts, water quality, and waste disposal.

Location or Climate for Tank Firming?

These system are particularly useful in areas where land and water are expensive and not readily available. They require relatively small amounts of land and water. All kind of climates area cultivated tank firming system, only cold climates firming little costly

Consciousness and risk factor of tank firming:

Currently use to grow catfish, striped bass, tilapia, crawfish, blue crabs, oysters, mussels, and aquarium pets. Indoor fish culture systems offer considerable flexibility to (1) grow a wide diversity of fish species, (2) rear a number of different species simultaneously in the same tank (poly culture) or different tanks (mono culture), (3) raise a variety of different sizes of one or several species to another depending on market demand and price.

Tank firming afford growers the opportunity to manipulate production to meet demand throughout the year and to harvest at the most profitable times during the year. This flexibility in the selection of species and harvest time allows the grower to rapidly respond to a changing marketplace in order to maximize production and profitability.

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Tank firming permit the grower to competitively respond to market price and demand fluctuations by altering harvest rates and times and the species cultured. Culture systems of Tank are now use to hold and purge (depurate) contaminated of off-flavor, pond reared catfish until they are acceptable for marketing. Tank firming do have some disadvantages when compared to open pond culture.

They are relatively expensive systems to develop (tanks, plumbing, bio filters) and to operate (pumping, aerating, heating, lighting). Moreover, they are complex systems and require skilled technical assistance to manage successfully. Constant supervision and skilled technical support require to manage and maintain relatively complex circulation, aeration, and bio filter systems, and to conduct water quality analysis.

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The danger of mechanical or electrical power failure and resulting fish loss is always a major concern when rearing fish in high densities in small water volumes. Operating at or near maximum carrying capacity requires fail-safes in the form of emergency alarms and backup power and pump systems. The business and biological risk factors are correspondingly high. Continuous vigilance and quick reaction times (15 minutes or less) need to avert total mortality. However, the higher risk factor, capital investment, and operating costs can offset by continuous production, reduced stress, improved growth, and production of a superior product in the tank.

What kind of materials required for a farm? What Type of tank required?

The functional parts of a Tank firming system include a: (1) growing tank, (2) some of particulate removal device, (3) bio filter, (4) oxygen injection with U-tube aeration and, (5) water circulation pump. Depending on the water temperature and fish species selected, a water heating system may be necessary. Ozone and ultraviolet sterilization also may be advantageous to reduce organic and bacteria loads.

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The Dia. is 3 meter so that it fits easily on wire mesh. Height is 1.2 meter.

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Fish can grow in tanks of nearly every shape and size. Fish tanks typically are rectangular, circular, or oval in shape. Circular or oval tanks with central drains are somewhat easier to clean and circulate water through than rectangular ones.  Rectangular tanks usually built with or set upon incline floors to facilitate cleaning and circulation. Rearing tanks range in size from 1500 to 2000,000 Liter capacities.

The size of the tank depends on a variety of factors including: stocking rates, species selected water supply, water quality, and economic considerations. The tank design to correspond with the capacity of other components of the system, particularly size of the bio filter and sump so that all parts of the system synchronize. Tanks can construct of plastic, concrete, metal, wood, glass, rubber and plastic sheeting, or any other materials that will hold water, not corrode, and are not toxic to fish.

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Smooth surfaces on the inside of the tanks recommend to prevent skin abrasions and infections to the fish, and to permit cleaning and sterilization. Light weight, durable, plastic tanks can conveniently move and readily clean when necessary, but they require special support to prevent stretching when filled with after. Stainless steel also is a good tank material, but can be expensive. Concrete tanks may be the most economical to build, but they are relatively permanent and immovable structures once constructed. Non-toxic plastic or rubber liners can but used over frames made of wood, metal, concrete, or other materials.

What is Bio-filtration ?

The biological filter (bio-filter) is the heart of Tank Firming. As the name implies, it is a living filter composed of a media (corrugated plastic sheets or beads or sand grains) upon which a film of bacteria grows. The bacteria provide the waste treatment by removing pollutants. Two primary water pollutants that need to remove (1) fish waste (toxic ammonia compounds) excreted into the water and (2) uneaten fish feed particles. The bio-filter is the site where beneficial bacteria remove (detoxify) fish excretory products, primarily ammonia.

Ammonia and Nitrate Toxicity

Ammonia and nitrite are toxic to fish. Ammonium water occurs in two forms: ionized Ammonium (NH4+) and unionized (free) ammonia (NH3). The latter, NH3, is highly Toxic to fish in small concentrations and should keep at levels below 0.05 mg/l. Total amount of NH3 and NH4 remain in proportion to one another for a given Temperature and pH, and a decrease in one form will compensate by conversion of The other. The amount of unionized ammonia in the water is directly proportional to the Temperature and pH.

As the temperature of pH increases, the amount of NH3 relative to NH4 also increases. In addition to ammonia, nitrite (NO2) poisoning of fish also is an imminent danger. Nitrite levels should keep below 0.5 mg/l. The disease can occur at nitrite concentrations of 0.5 mg/l or greater. As the name implies, the blood has a characteristic chocolate brown color. Adding salt (NACL) at a rate of 500 gram per 480 Litre  of water (a chloride to nitrite ratio of 16:1) will suppress this disease in soft water; a ratio of 3:1 is effective in hard water.

Calculating Ammonia Loading

The amount of ammonia excreted into a tank depends on a number of variables including the species, sizes, and densities of fish stocked and environmental conditions (temperature, pH). Ammonia loading can roughly estimated from the bio mass (weight) of fish in the tank or it can be based on the weight of feed fed each day.

On the average about 25 mg (milligrams) of ammonia per day produce for every 100 grams of fish in the tank. Therefore, in a tank containing 1,000 striped bass fingerlings each weighing 75 grams (75 Kg total fish weight), Ammonia loading also can estimate based on the total amount of feed fed. For manufactured fish feed with standard protein levels of 30 to 40 percent, simply multiply the total weight of the feed (in grams) times 25. For example, if the fingerling stripers are fed 1 pound (454 grams) of pelleted feed per day, the amount of ammonia produced per tank would be about 11,350 mg per day.

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Nitrification:

Ammonia is a poisonous waste product fish excret. Since fish cannot tolerate this poison, detoxifying ammonia is fundamental to good water quality, healthy fish, and high production. Detoxification of ammonia occurs on the bio-filter through the process of nitrification. Nitrification refers to the bacterial conversion of ammonia nitrogen (NH3) to less toxic NO2, and finally to non-toxic NO3. The process requires a suitable surface on which the bacteria an grow (bio-filter media), pumping an continuous flow of tank water through the bio-filter, and maintaining normal water temperatures and good water quality.

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Two groups of aerobic (oxygen requiring), nitrifying bacteria need for this job. Nitrosamines bacteria convert NH3 to NO2 (they oxidize toxic ammonia excreted by fish to less toxic nitrite), the Nitro bactor bacteria convert NO2 to NO3 (they oxidize toxic nitrite to largely nontoxic nitrate). Nitrification is an aerobic process and requires oxygen. For every 1 milligram of ammonia converted about 5 milligrams of oxygen consume, and additional 5 milligrams of oxygen require to satisfy the oxygen demand of the bacteria involved with this conversion.

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Therefore, tanks with large numbers of fish and heavy ammonia loads will require plenty of oxygen before and after the bio-filtration process. Nitrification is an acidifying process, but is most efficient when the pH maintain between 7 and 8 and the water temperature is about 27-28 C. Acid water (less than pH 6.5) inhibits nitrification and should avoid. Soft, acidic waters may require the addition of carbonates (calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate) to buffer the water. The addition of a salt as a therapeutic in striped bass as freshwater bacteria temporarily adjust to alteration in salinity.

Bio-filter Design and Materials

A bio filter, in its simplest form, is a wheel, barrel, or box that fill with a media that provides a large surface area on which nitrifying bacteria can grow. The bio filter container can construct of a variety of materials, including plastic, wood, glass, metal, concrete, or any other nontoxic substance. In small-scale systems, some growers have used plastic garbage cans or septic tanks. The size of the bio filter directly determines the carrying capacity of fish in the system. Larger bio filters have a great ammonia assimilation capacity and can support greater fish production.

Biofilter Sizing:

The biofilter in any Tank design must size to correspond with the other system components. Important factors that must consider in designing a bio filter are: media surface area (square feet of surface for bacteria attachment), ammonia leading (ounces of ammonia that need to convert per day per square foot of media area), and hydraulic loading (gallons of water per day per square foot media surface).

Types of Bio filters: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Bio filters configure in many ways. The two general categories submerge bed filters and (2) emerged bed filters. Submerged bed filters can have fixed (immobile) media in which the water flow can be upward, downward or horizontally through the media. The fluidizes bed reactor (FBR) is a commonly use submerge bed filter. The FBR

Consists of fine particles (sand, dense plastic, glass beads, minerals, etc.) in a container through which upwelling water flows thereby “fluidizing” or suspending the media in the water column. FBRs offer large surface area per unit volume and theoretically greater nitrification.

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However, as with other submerged bed filters, all of the oxygen needed for conversion of ammonia to nitrate can dissolve. Submerged bed filters often need supplemental aeration both before and after the water passes through the filter. If the inlet dissolved oxygen is low, the efficiency of ammonia conversion reduce.

Emerged bed filters are of two basic types: (a) trickling filter (TF) sometimes called packed columns, and (b) rotating biological contactors (RBC). These filters have the advantage of not requiring the addition of oxygen prior to water entering the filter. In fact, these filters frequently supply al the oxygen used to support fish respiration.

Compartmentalization: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

The ability of isolate the components of the system (biofilter, fish tank, and sump) is an important design feature. At critical moment it becomes necessary to do filter maintenance or to treat the fish with chemicals and drugs. Cleaning and de clogging static bio filters can pose difficult problems, particularly if there is no provision for shutting down the system for maintenance.

Some therapeutic chemicals and drugs used to treat such fish may be harmful to nitrifying bacteria on the bio-filter. A sudden drop in the efficiency of the bacteria can result in toxic NH3 concentrations and fish kills.

Other filters: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Other types of filtration (mechanical and chemical) are available and can sometimes use to supplement the efficiency of biofilters in removing ammonia in fish production systems. Most of these measures are useful only to temporarily control ammonia and nitrite in small systems. In chemical filtration, water pump through a chemical media of activated carbon, zeolite, or other substances.

These chemicals have microscopic pores that trap ammonia ions and remove them from the water. The familiar activated charcoal filter, popular in aquaria, can incorporate as an auxiliary filter to support bio-filtration in fish production systems, but this form of filtration requires periodic replacement with large quantities of relatively costly activated charcoal.

Oxygen Management: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Successful fish production depends on good oxygen management. The addition of oxygen in a pure form or as atmospheric air (aeration) is essential to (1) survival (respiration) of fish held in high densities, (2) the survival of aerobic, nitrifing bacteria on the bio filter and, (3) for the decomposition (oxidation) of organic waste products.

Supplying sufficient oxygen to sustain healthy fish and bacterial populations and to meet the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) for fish waste and unconsumed food is critical. Maintain oxygen levels, near saturation or even at slightly super-saturation at all times. Low oxygen levels will reduce growth, feed conversion rates, and overall fish production.

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The amount of oxygen needed in RAS depends on a number of factors. Oxygen demand directly correlate with the density of fish in the tanks, feeding rates, water temperatures, flow rates, and nitrification. It is also a function of physical conditions such as water temperature and water volumes. Increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations through oxygen injection, aeration, and increasing water flow rates (turnover times) are ways to increase the density (carrying capacity) of fish that held in tanks of fixed size.

Atmospheric oxygen add to the tanks by surface agitation with aerators or by large blowers. Surface aerators may not cost effective or efficient in evenly distributing oxygen throughout large commercial-scale systems. Blowers effectively use to supply oxygen and also to mechanically rotate RBS.

Ozone Sterilization: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Ozone (O3) is a naturally occurring gas (upper atmosphere) that consists of three atoms of oxygen. It is a powerful oxidizing agent that use to break down compounds. (O3) Ozone must use with caution since it is directly toxic to aquatic life and may form harmful bi-products (hypochlorite, hypobromite). Careful redox potential measurements and special injection equipment apparatus need to determine and control ozone applications.

Carbon Dioxide: FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

In addition to toxic ammonia, carbon dioxide tends to concentrate in intensive fish production systems. As carbon dioxide increases, the pH of the water decreases, and fish respiration affect. Carbon dioxide levels should maintain at levels less than 30 mg/l for good fish growth. Some carbon dioxide is beneficial since it reduces pH and mitigates ammonia toxicity. Carbon dioxide removal accomplish with any device (RBC, packed column) that increases air-water contact.

Feeds and Feeding : FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

A complete feed, containing all the essential minerals and vitamins for healthy fish growth, and formulated specifically for the fish species rear, is necessary for fish production in tank. Do not substitute other animal feed for fish feed. Even different fish species have different nutritional requirements, particularly the quality and quantity of protein need, that met to optimize growth.

We recommend feeding a commercial feed of dry, floating pellets so that the feeding activity and health of the fish easily observe at the water surface. The size of the pellet should correspond with the size of the fish. Feed the largest pellet that the fish will readily swallow in order to maximize consumption and minimize waste. To keep feed fresh, order only a limited supply and store it in a cool, dry area, free of insects and rodents. In case of a liability problem with contaminated feed, it’s a good idea to freeze small samples of each new batch of feed purchased for subsequent analysis if necessary.

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Cultured fish generally are fed 3 to 5 percent of their body weight or all the feed that they can consume in a short period of time, say five minutes. Feed remaining in the tank after five minutes seldom eat and overfeeding can seriously degrade water quality. A good, quick indicator of problems with water quality or disease is when fish go off feed or refuse to eat. If fish suddenly stop feeding, immediately check for high ammonia levels, low oxygen concentrations, diseases, or other problems. Reduced feeding rates occur at very high and low water temperatures.

To maximize growth, feed on a regular schedule at the same time each day. More frequent feedings several times per day) have resulted in better growth rates and feed conversion efficiencies than a single daily feeding. Distribute the feed as uniformly as possible throughout the tank to prevent uneven growth and stunting.

Warm Temperature : FISH FARMING ON ROOF Kitchen Garden

Water temperature strongly influences feeding and growth rates of cultured fish. The water temperature preferences of most culture fish well known and maintain year-round in RAS. In general, cultured fish species can be classified as either cold water species that prefer temperatures of 50-65 F, (trout), cool water species prefer temperatures of 65-80 F, (yellow perch), and warm water species (channel catfish) that prefer temperatures 80-90 F. Water temperature also influences the water quality processes occurring in re circulation systems.

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For example, the optimum water temperature for bacterial nitrification activity is 85 F, which may or may optimal for the fish species culture. Energy conservation is one of the major advantages of re circulation aquaculture systems. Once the tank water heat to the optimal temperature for fish growth, only a small amount of heat energy require to maintain the temperature.

A unique thermal property of water is its high specific heat – it heats and cools slowly. Therefore, once the optimal water temperature for fish growth is reached, only a small amount of energy is necessary to maintain the best thermal condition. Heat losses through convection and conduction are minimal in a well insulated building.

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