Genetically Modified Organism

Over 30 years ago, Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) methods created. And since then, genetically modified (GM) or transgenic crops have been commercially available and widely adopting in many countries. One or more genes coding for desired features have introduced into these plants. The genes could come from the same plant species or from completely different organisms.

The qualities sought through genetic engineering are frequently the same as those sought by traditional breeding. Because genetic engineering allows for direct gene transfer across species borders. Several formerly difficult or impossible to breed features now generate quite easily.

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Herbicide-resistant crops (soybeans and maize), pest resistance, and other features enhanced in first-generation GM crops (Cotton and corn). Second-generation GM crops have higher nutrient content and better quality features. One of the earliest Genetically Modified Organism crops, “Golden Rice,” bio-fortified to combat vitamin A deficiency.

Benefits of Transgenic Crops

Corn, sorghum, cassava, and banana plants also bio-fortified with added minerals and vitamins. Genetically modified crops can resist plant viruses and fungus. Even though the seed is more expensive, these GM crops reduce production costs by reducing the amount of machinery, fuel, and pesticides used.

Reduced spraying of chemical insecticides and highly toxic herbicides has important environmental benefits, such as limiting farm runoff that might otherwise poison water systems.

Countries are now authorizing several genetically modified crops for commercial release and agricultural production. Thanks to fast advances in agricultural biotechnology research and development. According to ISAA, 189.8 million hectares of biotech crops planted. More than 17 million farmers in 24 countries in 2017, the 21st year of commercialization of biotech crops.

The 189.8 million hectares planted in 2017 represents a 112-fold growth from the inaugural planting of 1.7 million hectares in 1996. It is possible after the first biotech crops commercialized.

As C. R. Bhatia & R. Mitra reviews

  • Increased productivity per unit area and inputs such as water, fertilizer, and energy to fulfill the demands of a growing and economically ascending populace yearning for high-quality, convenient foods that are pesticide-free.
  • Improve population stability by including resistance to diverse biotic and abiotic challenges.
  • Development of environmentally friendly production systems that utilize less pesticides.
  • Enhancing the shelf life of fruits and vegetables to avoid post-harvest losses.
  • Improving the end-of-life characteristics.
  • Reducing the production systems’ negative environmental impact.
  • lowering the cost of production
  • प्रति इकाई क्षेत्र में उत्पादकता में वृद्धि और कीटनाशकों से मुक्त उच्च गुणवत्ता वाले, सुविधाजनक खाद्य पदार्थों के लिए तरस रही बढ़ती और आर्थिक रूप से बढ़ती आबादी की मांगों को पूरा करने के लिए पानी, उर्वरक और ऊर्जा जैसे इनपुट।
  • विविध जैविक और अजैविक चुनौतियों के प्रतिरोध को शामिल करके जनसंख्या स्थिरता में सुधार करना।
  • पर्यावरण के अनुकूल उत्पादन प्रणालियों का विकास जो कम कीटनाशकों का उपयोग करते हैं।
  • फसल के बाद के नुकसान से बचने के लिए फलों और सब्जियों के शेल्फ जीवन को बढ़ाना।
  • जीवन के अंत की विशेषताओं में सुधार।
  • उत्पादन प्रणालियों के नकारात्मक पर्यावरणीय प्रभाव को कम करना।
  • उत्पादन की लागत को कम करना

Genetically Modification Crops in India

In March 2002, the Indian government approved Bt cotton as the first transgenic crop for commercial production for a three-year term. Aside from cotton, more than 20 crops researched and developed in India by over 50 public and private sector institutions. In India, 13 of these crops have allowed for small-scale field trials.

Though it is widely claim that transgenic crops hold great promise for addressing some of the world’s most pressing issues, they, like all new technologies, come with risks. Transgenic crops can bring together new gene combinations that not found in nature.

Potentially causing harm to human health, the environment, and non-target species. Concerns raised concerning the possible risks connected with transgenic crops. ‘ influence on human health, the environment, and biological diversity as more transgenic crops issue for field testing and commercialization.

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Crops Genetically Modification Effects on Bio-Safety

Concerns raised about potential hazards to human health and the environment as more transgenic crops issue for field testing and commercialization. Bio-safety refers to the principles, processes, and regulations that must follow in order to protect the environment and people.

Recognizing the importance of bio-safety in GE research and development, 167 countries, including 165 United Nations countries, Niue, and the European Union, have signed the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety (CPB), an international multilateral agreement on bio-safety.
The Protocol went into effect on September 11, 2003, with the following main goals:

  • Establishing guidelines for the safe trans-border transport of live modified organisms
  • Through the Bio-safety Clearing House, harmonize risk assessment concepts and methods, and create a framework for information sharing (BCH).

Human and animal health bio-safety

  • Toxicity risk owing to the product’s nature or changes in the metabolism and composition of the organisms as a result of gene transfer.
  • Newer proteins in transgenic crops derived from creatures that not use as foods have the potential to become allergies.
  • Antibiotic resistance genes used as select-able markers have also prompted concerns about their transfer to microbes, potentially worsening health problems caused by antibiotic resistance in disease-causing organisms.
  • उत्पाद की प्रकृति या जीन स्थानांतरण के परिणामस्वरूप जीवों के चयापचय और संरचना में परिवर्तन के कारण विषाक्तता का जोखिम।
  • जीवों से प्राप्त ट्रांसजेनिक फसलों में नए प्रोटीन जो खाद्य पदार्थों के रूप में उपयोग नहीं करते हैं उनमें एलर्जी होने की संभावना होती है।
  • चुनिंदा-सक्षम मार्करों के रूप में उपयोग किए जाने वाले एंटीबायोटिक प्रतिरोध जीन ने रोगाणुओं के लिए उनके स्थानांतरण के बारे में चिंताओं को भी प्रेरित किया है, संभावित रूप से रोग पैदा करने वाले जीवों में एंटीबायोटिक प्रतिरोध के कारण स्वास्थ्य समस्याएं बिगड़ती हैं।

Concerns about the environment

For features involving resistance, gene flow due to cross pollination might result in the establishment of tolerant or resistant weeds that are difficult to remove.

  • GM crops have the potential to deplete biodiversity and pollute vulnerable plant species’ gene pools.
  • Farmers have replaced indigenous types with monocultures, which has resulted in genetic loss.
  • Effect of transgenic plants on target and non-target pest population dynamics, secondary pest problems, insect sensitivity, evolution of novel insect bio-types, environmental influence on gene expression, insect resistance development, herbicide resistance development.
  • Accidental cross breeding of Genetically Modified Organism plants and traditional kinds through pollen transfer can contaminate traditional local varieties with GMO genes, leading in the farmers’ traditional variety being lost. [ पराग हस्तांतरण के माध्यम से आनुवंशिक रूप से संशोधित जीवों के पौधों और पारंपरिक प्रकारों के आकस्मिक क्रॉस ब्रीडिंग जीएमओ जीन के साथ पारंपरिक स्थानीय किस्मों को दूषित कर सकते हैं, जिससे किसानों की पारंपरिक किस्म नष्ट हो जाती है। ]

Public opinion

  • Consumer reactions are influenced by their views on the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods.
  • The media, individuals, scientists and administrators, politicians and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are all responsible for informing the public about the benefits of genetically modified foods.

Considerations in terms of socioeconomic and ethics

  • Consumers and farmers could gain from this.
  • As the seed market grows, developing countries may become reliant on a few providers.
  • Restriction of Gene Use Technologies.
  • Under the PPV & FRA, 2001, India has outlawed the use of GURT in plant variety registration.
  • इससे उपभोक्ताओं और किसानों को फायदा हो सकता है।
  • जैसे-जैसे बीज बाजार बढ़ता है, विकासशील देश कुछ प्रदाताओं पर निर्भर हो सकते हैं।
  • जीन उपयोग प्रौद्योगिकियों का प्रतिबंध।
  • पीपीवी और एफआरए, 2001 के तहत, भारत ने पौधों की किस्मों के पंजीकरण में GURT के उपयोग को गैरकानूनी घोषित कर दिया है।

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