Suitable Soils for Agriculture in India. In this post, we’ll look at the soil in India and the different types of agriculture that practice there. There are several different types of soil in India. Each sort of soil has its own set of features. Each one is best suite to a specific range of crops. Here’s a quick rundown of India’s soil types, their features, and what crops may be cultivate in each.
Table of Content
- Different Type of Soil Advisable of Cultivation in India
- Alluvium Soil in India
- Black Soil
- Red & Yellow Soil
- Laterite Soil
- Arid Soil
- Mountain & Forest Soil
India is an agrarian nation with soil as its most valuable resource. It is critical to the Indian economy because our industries are primarily agro-base. Agriculture employs about 65 to 70 percent of the country’s overall population.
Different Type of Soil Advisable of Cultivation in India
1.Alluvium Soil in India
Where it Found : Alluvium is one of the best suitable Soils for Agriculture in India. Its found the majority of North India’s delta areas. It encompasses over 35% of all Indian territory.
Nature of Alluvium Soil : The soil is a mix of sandy loam and clay. In nature, it drains quickly. Humus (organic stuff) and phosphoric acid are abundant. Potash and nitrogen deficiency.
Suitable Crops in Alluvial Soil
Cotton, wheat, sorghum, bajra, maize, barley, jute, tobacco, green and black gram. Also suitable crops are chickpea, pigeon pea, soybean, sesame, peanut, linseed, plus any oil seed, fruit, and vegetable.
India’s alluvium is geologically split into four types of soils.
- The Bhabar belt stretches for 8 to 16 kilometres over the Shivalik Hills. The Indo-Gangetic Plain’s northernmost portion.
- Soil has a lot of pores. There are a lot of pebbles and rock waste.
- Crop cultivation is not possible. Only trees with large, deep roots have the ability to grow.
- 15-30 km south of Bhabar belt, it runs through a thickly forested tract.
- The area is swampy and poorly drained. Nitrogen and organic materials are abundant. Low quantity Phosphate available in this soil.
- Wheat, jute, rice, and sugarcane are some of the most common crops.
- 30 m above the flood plain, an older alluvial belt crosses river beds.
- Soil is dark and clayey.
- Agricultural crops are less suitable.
- Newer alluvial belt across river beds.
- The most fertile soil of the Ganges. Sandy clay, loamy soil, less “kankary.” River floods deposit new alluvial layer every year.
- Suitable for Sugarcane, wheat, rice, oil seeds
Where Found : Black soil is another better suitable Soils for Agriculture in India. Deccan lava flow. Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana are among the states included. This soil type is common in the Narmada, Godavari, Tapi, and Krishna river valleys.
Nature of Black Soil : When lava rocks weather away, these soils form. Magnesium, iron, aluminium, and lime are all abundant. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter levels are low. When fully saturated, black soils become sticky. When completely dry, they develop cracks. The black colour of soils is caused by humus and salt deposits that occur during their formation. They are extremely moisturizing.
Suitable Crops in Black Soil
Cotton is the most important crop. As a result, black soil is also known as black cotton soil. Wheat, cereals, rice, jowar, sugarcane, linseed, sunflower, groundnut, tobacco, millets, citrus fruits, oilseed crops of all kinds, and vegetables are among the other crops.
3.Red & Yellow Soil
Where Found : This type of soil found in the Deccan plateau, the Western Ghats, Orissa, and Chhattisgarh.
Nature of Red & Yellow Soil : The soils are red due to the presence of iron oxide. When metamorphic rocks weather away, soils form. Potassium-rich. A little acidic. Nitrogen, magnesium, lime, phosphorus, and organic matter are all deficient. The soil is sandy.
Suitable Crops in Red & Yellow Soil
This soil is better for Groundnuts, potatoes, maize/corn, rice, ragi, wheat, millets, pulses, sugarcane, oilseeds, and fruits such as citrus, orange, and mango, as well as vegetables.
Where Found : This kind of soil found in Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Assam, and Orissa.
Nature of Laterite Soil : Iron-rich acidic soils. Because of their high iron content, they are used to make bricks. Organic matter, calcium, nitrogen, and phosphate levels are low. It’s not very fertile.
Suitable Crops in Laterite Soil
Cotton, wheat, rice, pulses, rubber, tea, coffee, coconut, and cashews are all examples of agricultural products.
Where Found : This soil available in West Aravalli.
Nature of Arid Soil : Sandy soils with little clay. Because arid regions are typically dry, they are deficient in organic matter and moisture. Nature is saline, with low nitrogen and high salt levels. Plant food abounds. Their colour ranges from red to brown.
Suitable Crops in Arid Soil
Crops that are saline resistant and drought tolerant are appropriate. Barley, maize, wheat, millets, cotton, and pulses are all examples of cereal grains.
6.Mountain & Forest Soil
Where Found : Himalayan region, Western and Eastern Ghats, and a few Peninsular Plateau regions
Nature of Mountain & Forest Soil : Soil that is acidic and high in organic matter. Lime, phosphorus, and potash are all deficient. In these soils, proper fertilization is required.
Suitable Crops in Mountain & Forest Soil
Wheat, barley, maize, tea, coffee, spices, tropical and temperate fruits are all examples of cereal grains.
Aside from that, India has alkaline and saline soils that are low in nutrients and high in salt. There are also marsh soils that are unsuitable for crop cultivation due to their high acidity. Peaty soils are high in organic matter and salt, but low in phosphorus and potassium. Kerala has a lot of peaty soil. [ इसके अलावा, भारत में क्षारीय और लवणीय मिट्टी है जो पोषक तत्वों में कम और नमक में उच्च है। दलदली मिट्टी भी हैं जो अपनी उच्च अम्लता के कारण फसल की खेती के लिए अनुपयुक्त हैं। पीट मिट्टी में कार्बनिक पदार्थ और नमक अधिक होता है, लेकिन फास्फोरस और पोटेशियम में कम होता है। केरल में बहुत अधिक पीट मिट्टी है। ]